We just need to understand the conclusion of the analysis. 0.8                               20 This is the most basic possible example of perfect positive correlation, where the forecast of the actual returns are the same in all market conditions for both investments and thus for the portfolio (as the portfolio return is simply a weighted average). The reason for squaring the deviations is to ensure that both positive and negative deviations contribute equally to the measure of variability. A wiser policy would be to spread the funds over several investments (establish a portfolio) so that the unexpected losses from one investment may be offset to some extent by the unexpected gains from another. Given that the expected return is the same for both companies, investors will opt for the one that has the lowest risk, ie A plc. In this article, you will discover how risky investing is. Others provide higher potential returns but are riskier. 1. If the forecast actual return is the same as the expected return under all market conditions, then the risk of the portfolio has been reduced to zero. The returns on most investments will tend to move in the same direction to a greater or lesser degree because of common macro- economic factors affecting all investments. The returns of A and C move in equal but opposite ways (when the return on A goes up to 30%, the return on C goes down to 10%, when the return on A goes down to 10%, the return on C goes up to 30%). Probability                 Return % Risk refers to the possibility of the actual return varying from the expected return, ie the actual return may be 30% or 10% as opposed to the expected return of 20%. So far we have confined our choice to a single investment. In other words, it is the degree of deviation from expected return. Risk Fallacy Number 1: Taking more risk will lead to a higher return. The variance of return is the weighted sum of squared deviations from the expected return. In investing, risk and return are highly correlated. We need to understand the principles that underpin portfolio theory, before we can appreciate the creation of the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM). R = Rf + (Rm – Rf)bWhere, R = required rate of return of security Rf = risk free rate Rm = expected market return B = beta of the security Rm – Rf = equity market premium 56. Systematic/Market risk: general economic factors are those macro -economic factors that affect the cash flows of all companies in the stock market in a consistent manner, eg a country’s rate of economic growth, corporate tax rates, unemployment levels, and interest rates.                                                 return (%)                        deviation (%) Imagine how much risk we could have diversified away, had we created a large portfolio of say 500 different investments or indeed 5,000 different investments. Based on the first version of the formula: The second version of the formula is the one that is nearly always used in exams and it is the one that is given on the formula sheet. Savings, Investing, and Speculating 1. In reality, the correlation coefficient between returns on investments tends to lie between 0 and +1. Thus the key motivation in establishing a portfolio is the reduction of risk. Try finding an asset, where there is no risk. 16%                    =         6%                  +         (5% × 2) While investors would love to have an investment that is both low risk and high return, the general rule is that there is a more or less direct trade-off between financial risk and financial return. A balance between risk and return in investing: Whether you are a conservative, moderate or aggressive investor you will have to manage risk and try to achieve as high returns as possible without compromising your risk management principles. Risk-free return + Risk premium The risk-free return compensates investors for inflation and consumption preference, ie the fact that they are deprived from using their funds while tied up in the investment. Others provide higher potential returns but are riskier. As mentioned earlier too, the asset, which gives higher returns, is generally expected to have higher levels of risk. How much do you expect to earn off of your investment over the next year? However, these only relate to specific instances where the investments being compared either have the same expected return or the same standard deviation. 0.1                               35 By the end of this article you should be able to: UNDERSTANDING AN NPV CALCULATION FROM AN INVESTOR’S PERSPECTIVE As a general rule, investments with high risk tend to have high returns and vice versa. Saving and Investing Standard 3: Evaluate investment alternatives. Risk – Return Relationship. Where investments have increasing levels of return accompanied by increasing levels of standard deviation, then the choice between investments will be a subjective decision based on the investor’s attitude to risk. 2. Explain the relationship between risk and return. The risk return relationship is a business concept referring to the risk involved in exchange for the amount of return gained on an investment. The relationship between risk and return can be observed by examining the returns actually earned by investors in various types of securities over long periods of time. Fortunately, data is available on the risk and return relationship of the three main asset classes: • Equities • Bonds • Cash (i.e. This Interactive investing chart shows that the average annual return on treasury bills since 1935 was 4.5%, compared to a 9.6% return on Canadian stocks. First we turn our attention to the concept of expected return. 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